Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib
Guru Tegh Bahadur was the youngest son
of Guru Hargobind and Bibi Nanki and was born at Amritsar on April 1, 1621.From the very
childhood Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib used to spend most of his time in meditation.
Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib had a regular schooling from the age of 6. Where he also learnt
classical, vocal and instrumental music. Bhai Gurdas Ji also taught him Gurbani and Hindu
Mythology. He was also given the military training like horsemanship, swordsmanship, and
shooting. He had witnessed and even participated in the battles of Amritsar and Kartarpur.
Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib was married to Gujri Ji (Mata), at an early age on 15. A son
(Guru) Gobind Singh (Sahib) was born on Poh Sudi Saptmi Samvat 1723 (December 22,1666).
Gujri (Mata) was also a religious lady.
Soon after the death of Guru Hargobind
Sahib, Mata Nanki Ji, took him and his wife (Gujri) to her natal village (Baba)
stay at Baba Bakala, Guru Tegh Bahadur paid visits to many holy and historical places like
Goindwal, Kiratpur Sahib, Haridwar, Prayag, Mathura, Agra, Kashi (Banaras) and Gaya. A
devoted Sikh of Guru Hargobind Sahib, Bhai Jetha Ji took Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib to Patna.
Here he heard the news of the passing away of Guru Har Rai Sahib (6th Oct, 1661) and
decided to return to Kiratpur Sahib. On the way back he reached Delhi, where he learnt the
arrival of Guru Harkrishan Sahib at the residence of Raja Jai Singh. He alongwith his
mother and other Sikhs paid visit to Guru Harkrishan Sahib.
After some days, Guru Harkrishan Sahib, prophetically uttered only two words "Baba
Bakala" meaning that his successor would be found at (Baba) Bakala. Now with this
announcement near about twenty-two posers and self-appointed successors sprung up in the
small village Bakala. The most prominent among them was Dhir Mal who was the only direct
descendant of the eldest son Baba Gurditta Ji.
Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib with his entire family reached Amritsar (about November, 1664) to
pay obeisance at Harmandir Sahib., but the ministers did not allow them to enter. Guru
Tegh Bahadur Sahib did not forced his entry but returned calmly and reached Kiratpur
Sahib via Vallah, Khandur Sahib, Goindwal Sahib, Tarn Taran Sahib, Khem karan.
In June 1665 Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib bought some land from Raja of Bilaspur and
founded a new town Chak-Nanki after revered name of his mother Nanki. Later this town was
renamed as Sri Anandpur Sahib.
After a brief stay at new
founded town, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib set out for a long journey towards the east in order
to strengthen the Sikh nation by setting up new preaching centers and renewing the old
ones. It was his second missionary tour. He left Anandpur Sahib in August, 1665 alongwith
many staunch sikhs.
A reign of terror was let loose on the
Hindus in India by the Muslim theistic state. The prosecution of Hindus was the most
outrageous feature of his reign.
In 1672, Guru Sahib set out for another
religious journey towards Malwa region in Punjab. Socially and economically this area was
backward and almost neglected, but the people were hard working and poor. They were also
deprived of basic amenities like fresh drinking water, milk and even simple food. Guru
Sahib toured this area about one and half year.
He helped villagers in many ways. Guru Sahib and Sikh Sangat assisted them in planting
trees on barren stretches of land. They were also advised to start dairy farming and in
this respect many cattle heads were also distributed free of cost among the poor and
landless farmers. To cope with the scarcity of water many community wells were dug on the
behest of Guru Sahib by performing Kar-Sewa (free service). Thus Guru Sahib identified
himself with the common masses. At this stage many followers of Sakhi Sarver (a muslim
outfit) entered into the fold of Sikhism. On the other hand Guru Sahib established many
new preaching centres of Sikhism at these places. The main and important halts of Guru
Sahib were Patiala (Dukhniwaran Sahib), Samaon, Bhiki, Tahla Sahib, and Talwandi in
Bhatinda, Gobindpura, Makrora, Bangar and Dhamdhan. Guru Sahib toured these areas about
one and a half years and returned Anandpur Sahib in 1675.
These preaching tours and social works irked the Muslim fundamentalists and created a
fear-psyche among the upper privileged classes. On the other hand the secret news-writers
of the Mughal Empire dispatched exaggerated and subjective reports regarding the religious
activities of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib.
The martyrdom of Guru Sahib had for reaching consequences and deeply influenced the
history of India. It exposed the fundamental theistic nature of the contemporary state,
highlighted tyranny and injustice. It made the people of India hate Aurangzeb and his
government as never before and turned the Sikh Nation into militant people. It made them
feels that they could protect their religion (Dharma) only but the defense of arms. It
proposed the way for the final stage in creation of the Khalsa, which played the most
important and significant role in the history of India.
Guru Sahib was also a great poet and thinker. For an example we may quote him, as one of
his Slokas, he says: Bhai Kahu kau det naih naih bhai manat ann, kahu nanak sunu re mana
gaini tahi bakhan.
Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib
Hind di chadar sacrified his life for the cause of Dharma, truth and the
betterment of humanity.